Maha Shivaratri is great festival of convergence of Shiva and Shakti. Chaturdashi Tithi during Krishna Paksha in month of Magha is known as Maha Shivaratri according to South Indian calendar. However according to North Indian calendar Masik Shivaratri in month of Phalguna is known as Maha Shivaratri. In both calendars it is naming convention of lunar month which differs. However both, North Indians and South Indians, celebrate Maha Shivaratri on same day.
Maha Shivaratri Muhurta 2016 (7th March 2016, Monday)
Nishita Kaal Puja Time = 24:06+ to 24:56+
Duration = 0 Hours 49 Mins
On 8th, Maha Shivaratri Parana Time = 06:42 to 10:34
Ratri First Prahar Puja Time = 18:21 to 21:26
Ratri Second Prahar Puja Time = 21:26 to 24:31+
Ratri Third Prahar Puja Time = 24:31+ to 27:36+
Ratri Fourth Prahar Puja Time = 27:36+ to 30:42+
Chaturdashi Tithi Begins = 13:20 on 7/Mar/2016
Chaturdashi Tithi Ends = 10:34 on 8/Mar/2016
Vrat Vidhi – One day before Shivaratri Vratam, most likely on Trayodashi, devotees should eat only one time. On Shivaratri day, after finishing morning rituals devotees should take Sankalp (संकल्प) to observe full day fast on Shivaratri and to take food next day. During Sankalp devotees pledge for self-determination throughout the fasting period and seek blessing of Lord Shiva to finish the fast without any interference. Hindu fasts are strict and people pledge for self-determination and seek God blessing before starting them to finish them successfully.
On Shivaratri day devotees should take second bath in the evening before doing Shiva Puja or visiting temple. Shiva Puja should be done during night and devotees should break the fast next day after taking bath. Devotees should break the fast between sunrise and before the end of Chaturdashi Tithi to get maximum benefit of the Vrat. According to one contradictory opinion devotees should break the fast only when Chaturdashi Tithi gets over. But it is believed that both Shiva Puja and Parana (पारणा) i.e. breaking the fast should be done within Chaturdashi Tithi.
Shivaratri puja can be performed one time or four times during the night. The whole night duration can be divided into four to get four Prahar (प्रहर) to perform Shiva Puja four times. Drikpanchang.com lists all four Prahar durations for staunch Shiva devotees who perform Shiva Pujan four times in the night. We also list Nishita time when Lord Shiva appeared on the Earth in the form of Linga and the time window to break the fast on next day.
Shivaratri is also spelled as Shivratri, Shivarathri and Sivaratri.
Maha Shivaratri is a Hindu festival celebrated annually in reverence of the God Shiva. It is the day Shiva was married to the Godess Parvati. The Maha Shivaratri festival, also popularly known as ‘Shivaratri’ (spelt as Sivaratri, Shivaratri, Sivarathri, and Shivarathri) or ‘Great Night of Shiva’, marks the convergence of Shiva and Shakti. Maha Shivaratri is celebrated on the Krishna Paksha Chaturdashi of Hindu calendar month Maagha as per Amavasya-ant month calculation. As per Poornima-ant month calculation, the day is Krishna Paksha Trayodashi or Chaturdashi of Hindu calendar month Phalguna which falls in February or March as per the Gregorian calendar. Of the twelve Shivaratris in the year, the Maha Shivarathri is the most holy.
The festival is principally celebrated by offerings of Bael leaves to Shiva, all-day fasting and an all-night-vigil (jagaran). All through the day, devotees chant “Om Namah Shivaya”, the sacred mantra of Shiva. Penances are performed in order to gain boons in the practice of Yoga and meditation, in order to reach life’s highest good steadily and swiftly. On this day, the planetary positions in the Northern hemisphere act as potent catalysts to help a person raise his or her spiritual energy more easily. The benefits of powerful ancient Sanskrit mantras such as Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra increase greatly on this night.
In Nepal, millions of Hindus attend Shivaratri together from different part of the world at the famous Pashupatinath Temple. Thousands of devotees also attend Mahasivaratri at the famous Shiva Shakti Peetham of Nepal.
In Indo-Caribbean communities throughout the West Indies, thousands of Hindus spend the auspicious night in over 400 temples across the country, offering special jhalls to Lord Shiva.
On Maha Shivaratri, Nishita Kala is the ideal time to observe Shiva Pooja. Nishita Kala celebrates when Lord Shiva appeared on the Earth in the form of Linga. On this day, in all Shiva temples, the most auspicious Lingodbhava Puja is performed.
A sadhu in Pashupatinath Temple during Shivaratri
‘Maha Shivaratri’ is associated with the marriage of Shiva and Shakti.
The legends signify that this day is the favorite of Lord Shiva and also throws light on his greatness and the supremacy of Lord Shiva over all other Hindu Gods and Goddesses.
Maha Shivaratri also celebrates the night when Lord Shiva performed the ‘Tandava’, the cosmic dance.
According to another legend of Samudra manthan, Shiva saved the world from the disastrous effects of a poison that emerged as a by product of the churning of the sea (Samudra manthan), by consuming the whole of the poison. Shiva could arrest the poison in his throat by his Yogic powers and it didn’t go down his throat. His neck turned blue due to the effect of the poison on his throat and henceforth he is also known as Neela Kantha or The Blue Throated.
Rituals of Maha Shivaratri
Varieties of Marigold for offering to Lord Lingaraj during Shivaratri at Bhubaneswar
Very early morning, Shiva temples are flocked by devotees, young and old, who come to perform the traditional Shivalinga worship (puja) and hence hope for favours from the God. Devotees bathe at sunrise, preferably in the Ganga, or any other holy water source (like the Shiv Sagartank at Khajurao). This is a rite of purification, which is an important part of all Hindu festivals. Wearing clean clothing after the holy bath, worshippers carry pots of water to the temple to bathe the Shivalinga. Women and men both offer prayers to the Sun, Vishnu and Shiva. The temple reverberates with the sound of bells and shouts of “Shankerji ki Jai” meaning ‘Hail Shiva’. Devotees circulate the lingam three or seven times, and then pour water over it. Some also pour milk over it.
According to the Shiva Purana, the Mahashivaratri worship must incorporate six items:
Bathing the Shiva Linga with water, milk and honey. Woodapple or bel leaves are added to, which represents purification of the soul;
Vermilion paste is applied to the Shiva Linga after bathing it. This represents virtue;
Offering of fruits, which is conducive to longevity and gratification of desires;
Burning incense, yielding wealth;
The lighting of the lamp which is conducive to the attainment of knowledge;
And betel leaves marking satisfaction with worldly pleasures.
Tripundra refers to the three horizontal stripes of holy ash applied to the forehead by worshipers of Lord Shiva. These stripes symbolise spiritual knowledge, purity and penance (spiritual practice of Yoga). They also represent the three eyes of Lord Shiva.
Wearing a mala (rosary) made from the rudraksha seeds of the rudraksha tree (said to have sprung from the tears of Lord Shiva) when worshiping Lord Shiva is ideal. A rudraksha seed is mahogany-like color, or could sometimes be black. They might also have traces of sacred sandalwood powder, turmeric, kumkum, or holy ash if the rosary is used in worship ceremonies or annointations.
Shivaratri in India
International MahaShivaratri Fair
The Mandi festival or fair is particularly famous as this special fair transforms the town of Mandi into a venue of grand celebration, where all Gods and Goddesses of the Mandi district, said to number more than 200, assemble, starting on the day of Shivaratri. The town of Mandi, located on the banks of the Beas River, is popularly known as the “Cathedral of Temples” and is one of the oldest towns of Himachal Pradesh, with about 81 temples of different Gods and Goddesses in its periphery. There are several legends linked to the celebration of Shivaratri. The festival is centered around the protector deity of Mandi “Mado Rai” (Lord Vishnu) and Lord Shiva of the Bhootnath temple in Mandi. This festival is celebrated with great fervor in Mandi and it is common to see many foreign tourists throng to this region, especially to partake in the Maha Shivaratri celebrations in Mandi, Himachal Pradesh.
Maha Shivaratri celebration in Bangladesh
Hindus in Bangladesh also celebrate Maha Shivaratri. They fast in hopes of getting the divine blessing of Lord Shiva. Many Bangladeshi Hindus go to Chandranath Dham (Chittangong) to observe this special day. It is said by Bangladeshi Hindus that those who fast and perform the Puja will receive a good Husband/Wife, making Maha Shivaratri extremely popular with Hindus all over Bangladesh.
Maha shivaratri in Central India
Central India has a large number of Shiva followers. The Mahakaleshwar Temple, Ujjain is one of the most venerated shrines consecrated to Lord Shiva where a large congregation of Shiva devotees turns up every year to offer prayers on the day of Maha Shivaratri. Tilwara Ghat in the city of Jabalpur and the Math Temple in the village of Jeonara, Seoni are two other places where the festival is celebrated with much religious fever .
Mahashivaratri in Southern India
Maha Shivaratri is celebrated widely in the temples all over Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala ,Tamil Nadu and Telangana. Shiva is considered the Adi (first) Guru from whom the yogic tradition originates. According to tradition, the planetary positions on this night are such that there is a powerful natural upsurge of energy in the human system. It is said to be beneficial for one’s physical and spiritual well-being to stay awake and aware throughout the night. On this day, artists from various fields such as classical music and dance perform the whole night.
This is a very special and rare puja conducted during the 10 days of the Maha Sivarathri festival. It is well known that Lord Siva is abhishekapriya (lover of ablutions). Lord Parasurama and Kroshta Muni, during their worship of the Lord here, are believed to have bathed the deity with Sahasrakalasam or a thousand pots of holy water, according to Vedic rites. Now during Maha Shivarathri festival, the Head Priest (Thanthri) and his team perform this puja. It is a ten-day function, each day an offering of 101 Kalasam or pots of holy water (100 being made of silver, while one is made of gold), charged with mantras recited by learned Brahmins seated on the Mukhamantapam. The pots are emptied onto Lord Shiva’s statue, the golden pot Brahmakalasam being the last one. A magnificent light is the indication or identity of Lord Shiva and the Shiva Lingam is considered to be the symbol of it. Hence, the formal worship on Maha Shivaratri consists of bathing the Shiva Lingam. Lord Shiva is said to be burning with the fire of austerity and so only those items are offered to Him that have a cooling effect. A cool water bath is believed propitious and to satisfy Shiva best. There is a belief among devotees that participation in Sahasrakalasam and offering holy worship will lead to blessings from Lord Shiva for prosperity and a peaceful life. Hundreds of devotees throng the shrine, chanting “Namah Shivaya”, “Hara hara Mahadeva”, and “Sambho Mahadeva”…
Sivarathri Nrutham at Thrikkuratti temple, according to religious scholars, resembles the cosmic dance of Shiva, called ‘Anandatandava,’ meaning, ‘the Dance of Bliss’ symbolising the cosmic cycles of creation and destruction, as well as the daily rhythm of birth and death. The dance is a pictorial allegory of the five principle manifestations of eternal energy – creation, destruction, preservation, salvation, and illusion.
The Priest keeps sheeveli vigraha (idol) fixed on decorated frame on his head. He makes seven rounds on Pradakshina Vazhi (holy walkway made of granite around Sanctum Santorum). When the fifth round is reached at the west nada (Parvathi nada), the door opens for just 10 minutes. This is an annual ceremony. Thousands of Pilgrims rush to have a glance of this auspicious moment. At this time all the pradakshina vazhi will be lit with camphor and brass temple lamps by thousands of devotes who stay awake through the night while chanting “Nama Sivaya”, “Hara Hara Mahadeva” and “Sambho Mahadeva”. Older devotees sing “Hara sankara siva sankara duritham kala sivane”. In this enlightened serene mood, the Priest performs Nrutham and runs the pradakshina vazhi towards the east nada. During the next two rounds he accepts “Valiya kanikka”. The Sivarathri Nrutham is followed by the well known magnificent display of fireworks.
On the evening of the Maha Shivarathri festival, a grand procession starts from Kadapra Kainikkara Temple. It includes: several decorated floats, Kaavadi Aaatam, Mayilattom, Amman Kudom, Thaiyyam, Vela Kali, Kuthiyotta Chuvadu, richly caparisoned elephants and folk art forms. This procession attracts thousands of devotees and tourists. When the main procession reaches Market Junction, other mini processions from Kurattikkadu Mutharamman Temple, Kurattissery Kannamkavil Mutharamman Temple, Thrippavoor Mahavishnu Temple, Vishavarsherikkara Subrahmanya Swami Temple, Sreekaryam Maliekal Rajan Temple, and Alumoodu Sivaparvathy Temple join and make the procession even more magnificent. The marvelous as well as magical effect of the Sinakari Melam and Panchavadyam, a combination of five percussion and wind instruments, is heard and enjoyed. Among the varieties of festivals celebrated in Kerala, the Thrikkuratti Sivarathri procession is one of the most thunderous, spectacular and dazzling. It is an expression of popular fascination for sound and colour, and because of the pageantry, it appeals to all people, including foreigners. Once the procession reaches the temple, Deeparadhana is followed by a colourful display of fireworks.
Shiva, as the God of destroying evil, is the third among the divine trinity of Hindu mythology. Shiva’s holy mantra, consisting of the five-syllables: “Na” “Ma” “Shi” “Vaa” “Ya” (Om NamaH Shivaaya) which praise Lord Shiva, is chanted incessantly on special occasions like Maha Shivaratri. Shiva’s thousands of names, each describing His greatness, may also be chanted. Shiva means “auspicious”. As Shankara, He is the giver of happiness to all. Nataraja (the king of dancers) is a favourite form of Lord Shiva’s, revered especially by dancers and musicians.
There is a special set of mantras in the Vedas, “Rudra Sukta (Rudri)”, which is recited by Bramhan/pundits (priests) while they offer a holy bath to the Shiva-lingam, with the waters of sacred rivers like the Ganges, as well as cow milk, curd (yogurt), ghee, honey and sugar powder. This ritual, known as “Rudrabhisheka”, is an important part of Shiva-puja.
According to the Puranas, the Kailasa peak of the Himalayas is the abode of Shiva and He bears the Ganges on His head. As the Lord of creatures, He is metaphorically called the Pashupathi (with Nandi, the bull, His favourite animal) and His fearless nature is captured by the title of Sarpabhushana. Shiva’s posture in the meditation is ascribed to Him as the head of Yogis (Yogiraja), who practice various spiritual feats to attain salvation. Lord Shiva’s divine consort, Goddess Parvati (who is also the daughter of Himalaya), is the deity of strength.
Shivaratri in Kashmir (Herath)
It is the most important festival for Kashmiri Brahmins. It is celebrated in every household as the marriage of Shiva and Parvati. The festivities start 3–4 days before Maha Shivaratri and continue for two days after it (Salam).